The Concise Top-down TOGA Vocabulary of Meta-Knowledge and Socio-Cognitive Engineering
This vocabulary intends to present only  systemistic, application-domain and user independent definitions .

(Provisional edition, since 2000)   in preparation yet.

Science   Science is a humans' activity and its products relaying on the modeling of the (existing) real world  entities and events, on the base of observed/measured  concepts according to the scientific method.
This modeling can be done from the different perspectives, on different conceptualization platforms (ontologies), and its conceptual products have to be verified.

- In the context of cognitive science: every science produces knowledge. and hypotheses.
- In the expression 'X science', X usually indicates a domain/subsystem of the real world (domain of interest).

Engineering  Engineering  is a humans' or artifacts activity focused on the goal-oriented and planned production of systems.

- Such specification is also called "engineering paradigm".
- In the expression 'X engineering', X usually indicates a domain/(a subsystem) of the real world (domain of intervention).

Technology Technology is a validated set of mental and real tools, materials and components developed by humans or artifacts, and directly employed  to engineering tasks in the real world. 

It also includes manuals, methods and procedures, therefore, using the AI language; technology is a set of natural and artificial systems and knowledge about them, being used in engineering activity. 

-  Technologies are usually divided according to the different physical domains of interest of their users, materials. and industrial  treatments. 
For example: materials technology, biotechnology, wood elaboration technology, different
production technologies, learning technologies, agent technologies.... 

Meta-technology denotes  common systemic knowledge and software tools valid and applicable for every technology, it means, domain-independent.
Meta-technology is a necessary tool for the engineering development of any particular technology.

- For example, mathematical software libraries and such tools as Math Lab. may be seen as a meta-technology.

- From the Cognitive Engineering perspective: frequently, meta-technology is not conscious for technology developers, 
it is the domain of "experience" and professional intuitions. 

Ref (since 2005): 
Google search: meta-technology: 1.430 docs.

An engineering focused on the modeling, design and construction of human-like functions such as: perception, reasoning, inferencing and learning. Its objective is to develop always more autonomous artificial minds,
intelligence-based systems, as well as systems/organizations of intelligent cognitive agents.
Cognitive engineering uses cognitive theories and models in order to construct artificial cognitive systems.
- It is a cross-disciplinary engineering.
- Products of cognitive engineering can be applied in robotics, cognitive ergonomics, decision-support, for the simulations of humans  and human organization behaviors (in computational psychology, sociology and organizational and managerial research).
Cognitive  An ill-defined, descriptive concept;  relaying on the computational interpretations of human mental functions and processes. According to the TOGA meta-theory, it is focused on the application and processing of information, knowledge, preferences and emotions in the way based on the identification of human reasoning functions.
Cognitive functions can be recognized,  modeled and investigated  either on the subsymbolic neural-networks level - by the analogy to biological brains,  or on the symbolic reasoning and meta-reasoning levels, mainly using individual introspection, communication, and observation of human beings - by  the analogy to human mind's abstract conscious thinking.

Cognitive technology is a set of Artificial Intelligence models, methods, software tools and products which are used by cognitive engineering.
 In the context of abstract-intelligence studies, the analogy to human mind seems to be more efficient than to a biological brain, considered here, as one of a theoretically possible physical carriers of abstract reasoning (cognitive) functions.

Ref: Cognitive science (an example only)
A complex goal-oriented activity distributed in time and space and performed by autonomous intelligent entities/agents 
in their society. A business activity has to have an economic dimension.
Business goals, among other its attributes, have to have one  integrated attribute with a value that can be mapped on a measurable well ordered (with a metrix) one-dimensional scale commonly accepted and considered mandatory by a human society.

It means, an activity A considered as a business activity in a society S1 can be not business activity in a society S2.

In general, business is every material or abstract activity which  produces the above value.

For example, activities involving risks related to human life and to the loses of unique cultural and environmental capital are not satisfy the above requirement.

- Business concept is closely related to the value theory (axiology).

next page

 Would you like to know more?

 For the citation purposes: A.M.Gadomski, The ConciseTop-Down TOGA Vocabulary of  Cognitive Engineering  (Provisional edition, last updating 23/09/2004), ENEA,  since 2000,

©2000-2004, ENEA. Adam Maria Gadomski. All rights reserved. No permission is granted to download and use the material from these pages other than for viewing  and citation purposes.  These are informal MKEM Server  Pages, representing the opinions of the contributor but not necessarily of ENEA.