Knowledge structure HID Research Group,


White paper: General TOGA-based top-down perspective on knowledge structure, Adam Maria Gadomski, ENEA. Page since 2001:

 Knowledge:  is a complex abstract object, it is an active (but not self-active) object which enables to transform information in other information (TOGA - Top-down Object-based Goal-oriented Approach)). Every knowledge has its own reference domain which has to be a domain of activity of an abstract intelligent agent.

In this sense, the concept knowledge has relative meaning. 

For example, every conceptual model is a knowledge if it represents some  interrelations between the components of a domain of activity of an intelligent agent/entity (TOGA meta-theory).

 - In the subject matter literature, the knowledge definition is not sufficiently clear but it is considered as something more complicated than information (most frequently, it is defined as a  mixture of  "facts" and "rules"), or as an information.  

 Structure (a systemic def.):  property of every system, it is a relations network between components, and is considered as quasi/semi invariant (by its observer/user).

In TOGA, knowledge  has the basic structure of a graph and is canonically representable in TAO (TOGA's Theory of Abstract Objects) as a world /system of objects ( knowledge objects).

In the case of complex objects, dependently on identification constrains (Ic), such as :

-  goal of identification, 
-  conceptualization environment/context, 
-  assumed/available generalization ("granulation") level

the same object (here, knowledge) can be described by different structures (by graphs).


- Generic identification constrains (Ic)  are explained and defined more precisely in frame of  the TOGA meta-ontology (KNOCS sub-theory). In  KNOCS  the concepts: information, knowledge and preferences are well separated, then, in consequence, object-based  knowledge structure conceptualization should enable to define  a certain set of Operations on Knowledge.

We may think about a Knowledge Algebra: (Kset,oK), where:
   Kset - is a set of distinguishable classes/types of knowledge pieces ,
   oK - is a set of available operations,
which has to be specialized according to the assumed Ic and  recognized/assumed specific  knowledge structure
s (classes).

We may notice, that, at present, any knowledge conceptualizations and knowledge meta-ontologies do not enable yet  to develope a formal algebra of knowledge


From the perspective of the development of knowledge and meta-knowledge engineering, as well as, from the perspectives of
the modeling of reasoning, intelligent agent architecture, learning and meta-learning (pedagogy/education), 
the problems of
really useful knowledge structuralization (and representation) are essential.

- Therefore, the works on this subject are in progress.

In the subject matter literature we distinguish the following main, more or less specialized, (symbolic) knowledge structures (see Web)::

- associative maps
- semantic networks
- object-based/oriented networks
- logic-based networks.
As knowledge exists only as a property of physical objects/systems then it can be either their active or passive property.

It can be either buildin as an abstract system/property represented on a "subsymbolic level" or explicitly coded on a "symbolic level" of the knowledge representation.

Illustrative top-(meta-) information related  to the current state of the concept : knowledge structure.

Google : "knowledge structure" : Nov. 05, 2001:   6 910 docs, 
                                                               Oct.  22, 2002:    9 960 docs, 
                                                               July.  02, 2004:  17 400 docs (this page 9th)
                                                               May. 20, 2005:  46 000 docs

                                                               Feb.  17, 2006: 161 000 docs (this page 5th)
                "formal knowledge structures": Oct.   22, 2002:         71 docs 
                                                               July.  02,  2004:         88 docs (this page 1st)

                          "algebra of knowledge"    Feb.  17, 2006:        32 docs

                 " meta- knowledge ontology"    Feb.  17, 2006:        13 docs

                " meta-ontology of knowledge"  Feb.  17, 2006:        00 docs


  See also: -  Scalable Knowledge Composition (SKC): Proposal, Gio Wiederhold, Computer Science 

                      Department, Stanford University

                   - Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia : meta-knowledge

[Meta-Knowledge Engineering & Management Server: go back].

Adam Maria Gadomski
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