It is a reasoning process which can be rational or irrational, and can be based on explicit or tacit assumptions.
Basic Decision-Making Ontology: Systemic TOGA-based definitions and conclusions
Choice is an mental or computational process which relies on the application of preference rules for the selection of one abstract
object/entity from a given abstract/conceptual objects set. It can be either reasoning-oriented or action-oriented.
Criteria - a set of preferences rules applicable to a requested choice.
Alternatives - a set of candidate abstract objects/entities to be chosen.
Decision-making is every mental or computer processing of IPK that produces a final result called decision, it can be an action, a
plan or an opinion. It begins when an agent needs to make a choice autonomously and it/he/she does not have in mind any "ready"
Therefore D-M can result either from a conflict among personal preferences or from the lack of adequate knowledge.
- A realization of a given procedure/algorithm with possible different results but exactly dependent on the established conditions, is not a
cognitive decision-making but it is a deterministic process.
- Not every decision-making/(decisional process) has to lead to a final decision.
- The necessity of D-M can result from a meta-reasoning on the current own preferences or from the continuity of the reasoning/inference
process of an agent, called decision-maker.
- Decision-making is closely related to a uncertainty, it means, in practice, to the risk and benefits/payoff concepts.
- Real world decision-making is usually recursive process, it means, a one top decision-making requires partial decisions adequate to the
decomposition of the main decisional problem.
Decision-making has to include together or alternatively "mechanisms" for information gathering and/or criteria and alternatives building.
Therefore, in the case of high-intelligent agents (TOGA model), it can be a recursive process which involves meta-reasoning levels and
different points of view .
Cognitive decision-making (CDM) is human-like decision-making, therefore its model does not include complex optimization methods
and numerical calculations, but it can include the information about them and about the possibility of their applications.
From the perspective of high-risk large human-based systems (human organizations) is important to distinguish "critical decision-making"
Cognitive Decision-Making is a decisional process which relates to the essential properties or meta-properties of socio-cognitive individual
and organizational decision-making (such as, time-critical, ethics critical, business critical, safety critical and efficacy critical).
According to the UMP paradigm it is divided on executive and managerial level decisional processes.
Organizations: TOGA meta-theory modelling approach, CNIP'06, see also the ppt synthetic presentation (poster)
Computational models of cognitive decision-making can be developed for systems on the different levels of intelligence, for example, distinguished by the capacity of meta-reasoning , They should serve for the development of kernels for different managerial Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS), nodes in intelligent computer networks and for artificial " brains of highly autonomous robots.
Herbert A. Simon (1916-2001) about Decision-Making Modeling:
"There are many that claim that Herbert A. Simon has precipitated something like a revolution in microeconomics. This revolution is in the concept of "decision-making" in organization and under uncertainty, which he claims is far away from the "rational man" often assumed in mainstream microeconomics" From .http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/profiles/simon.htm
Decision Making and Problem Solving and the Theory of Subjective Expected Utility (SEU): " The work of managers, of scientists, of engineers, of lawyers--the work that steers the course of society and its economic and governmental organizations--is largely work of making decisions and solving problems."
A notice on Unified Decision-Making Theory and Intelligence Reinforcement
The proposal of the EMIR
Management Intelligence Reinforcement: Socio-cognitive Modelling of Human,
Organization and Computer High-Intelligent Decision-Making) project
based on the
TOGA meta-theory, was new "conceptually updated" initiative
of the development of an integrated/unified computational cognitive decision-making
theory as a core indispensable activity of every cognitive intelligent
An illustration of the Google search :
8 Nov. 2004) - 9.690.000 docs, ( 10 Jan. 2005) -13.600.000
docs ( 21 Sept. 2005)-93.800.000 docs.
Some Interesting links:
- Leadership Decision Making (personal decision making), by Hossein Arsham
- Decision-making, organization and crisis, by Adam Maria Gadomski.
- Decision-Making and Organization Vulnerability - by Adam Maria Gadomski, CNIP-2006 Workshop, Rome
- Decision.Making in Wikipedia
- Intelligent Decision Support Systems - An Introduction, web page.
- Decision-making and Ethics, Josephson Institute of Ethics - an example of an universal ethical system,Wes Hanson, editor.
Some remarks on risk, beliefs and decision-making
To: "Mailing List for Risk Professionals"
Date: Wed, 12 Feb 2003 18:10:18
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