Adam Maria Gadomski
|System Engineering versus Technology Engineering
TOGA (Top-down Object-based Goal-oriented Approach) Ontology
|1. Technology Engineering
A contribution to the discussion on the subject matter.
Date: Tue, 12 Oct 1999 03:55:25 +0100
WHAT IS TECHNOLOGY?
- Technology is the technical means people use to improve their
We use technology to control the world in which we live. Technology
is people using
SOME MY PROPOSALS (updated,
We can argue that the progress in cognitive
technology, as in every interdisciplinary RTD field,
- It also includes manuals, methods and procedures, therefore,
using the AI language; technology is a set of natural and artificial
systems and knowledge about them,
Technologies are usually divided according to the different physical
domains of interest of their users, materials.
For example, from this point of view we have the following relations:
- information are data for knowledge.On the other hand, we have scientific and observation-based theories, they are not goal-oriented, and, of course, they are not technologies.
But ... if we recognize a certain scientific theory as a useful conceptualization tool for a certain class of engineering problems then it becomes a part of technology.
COGNITIVE TECHNOLOGIES - definitions
Cognitive technologies are conceptual and software tools and components for the construction of human (users) models, especially necessary for the design of various intelligent computer systems and human-computer conceptual interfaces/interactions.
Cognitive technologies are developed and investigated in the context of the cognitive science.
They include different reasoning methods and agent architectures
based on the identification of human brain and human mental (abstract)
For example, the development of specific numerical problem-solving methods are not cognitivistic tasks but an elaboration of their qualitative "logical" human-like management methods is the task for CT.
I argue that the goal-oriented management of uncertainty and incompleteness of information and knowledge are most characteristic tasks of CT.
At the end, the central/reference point of CT is an abstract, domain-independent, action-oriented decision-making (DIAD) process. - Its efficacy depends on intelligence of the decision-maker, and ... this is the problem.
A more detailed vision of the symbolic knowledge-based branch of CT in the context of the human reliability, meta-system engineering, IDSSs (Intelligent Decision-Support Systems) and 'mindware' will be available soon on my home pages.
Adam Maria Gadomski
In the above context, TECHNOLOGY
ENGINEERING is an activity being based on the application of engineering paradigms
and focused on the development and improvement of different technologies.
The meta-technologies are employed hardly in every technological research and engineering but they are embedded and dispersed in particular terminologies. They are not explicitly visible and are frequently developed in isolation.
Meta-technologies are the way to copy with such meta-engineering problems as reusing, reengineering, systems safety, an abstract domain-independent action-oriented decision-making (DIAD) process, and, in general, ... knowledge engineering.
2. System Engineering - top definitions
always.... in updating
X Engineering: is a goal-oriented activity in order to design, improve, construct and develop of X class systems using available materials, physical components (functional subsystems) and knowledge (ontology's, models, methods, procedures and rules).
or more formally,
X Engineering ( Domain Engineering)
It is a goal oriented activity of intelligent beings in a society S, relying on the designing, improving, construction and developing of X-class systems, using available physical objects (materials, tools), information and technologies (knowledge) according to the laws, rules (preferences) obligatory or normative in the S society, and the specific requirements of the future user of the developed system.
Remarks: X engineering requires from X engineers a capability to the description of a developed system in terms of the X domain theory and adequate methods which he/she uses.
Major key engineering activities are: understand objectives, choice means, configuration/integration of the system, its validation and control..
In the above context, X-engineering objective is to construct requested system according to the available means (i.e. technologies, in particular).
System Engineering is a X engineering where X represents a wide class of systems, their aggregates and meta-systems.
A main conceptual tool in system engineering should be the General Systems Theory, but one congruent GST does not exist yet.
Now we can argue that Technology Engineering is a sub domain of System Engineering specified according to the definition of technology.
Meta-system Engineering and Meta-engineering ... (?)
... In general, meta-approaches are conceptualization/ontological
and methodological tools for every top-down identification and design activities.
In practice, the application fields of the above specified terminology are: systemics, meta-philosophy, socio-cognitive engineering and ... computer science.
For more information: Meta-System Engineering Paradigms