Adam Maria Gadomski (ENEA, It),  Andrzej Straszak (IBS, Pl) 
Socio-Cognitive Engineering Paradigms  for  Business  Intelligence  Modelling: the TOGA conceptualization. 
Proceedings of the 5th  Business Information System International Conference– BIS 2002, Poznan, Poland, April 24-25, 2002. 


The paper is an introduction to the new conceptualization of the business intelligence modeling from the perspective of meta-systemic knowledge and socio-cognitive values involved in the management of large complex heterogeneous real-world systems integrating human, technological and environmental components. On the other hand, the paper demonstrates how the application of a modern systemic approach TOGA (Top-down Object-based Goal-oriented Approach, its top-ontology, and artificial intelligence software technologies enable together to define meta-modeling frameworks and to indicate why, where and how business intelligence can be constructed and reinforced.
This approach should lead to the indication of critical factors of business organizations, and, as a consequence, to the development of intelligent business decision support systems. Conscious applications of socio-cognitive engineering paradigms should also dramatically improve quality, efficiency and efficacy of the design, planning and management of business enterprises.

  Business definition:
A complex goal-oriented activity distributed in time and space and performed by autonomous intelligent entities/agents in their society. 
Business goals, among other properties, have to have one  integrated attribute with a value which can be mapped on a measurable  well ordered one-dimensional scale commonly accepted and considered mandatory by a reference human society.  In general, business is every material or abstract activity which  produces the above value. 

  Business intelligence (behavioral) definition
A cognitive capacity of the efficient "business-making". Usually it is related to managers and human organizations but it  is also the subject of  computational modeling  in Artificial Intelligence research.

  Business intelligence is a new technology domain, it involves some aspects of the emotional,  rational and organizational intelligence but is marginally related to such concepts as  ethics/axiology study and not economical values of  the environment, culture and  management of large social emergencies.

  See also:

  Historical background of the Herbert A. Simon's perspective  

 Rational Decision Making in Business Organizations , , 1951, Econometrica. 
 A Comparison of Organisation Theories, 1952, RES. 
 Literary Criticism: A Cognitive Approach , 1995 Stanford Humanities Review. 



- Adaptive Business Intelligence: Michalewicz, Z., Schmidt, M., Michalewicz, M., Chiriac, C.;  2006, Springer.


- “Computational Intelligence for Business Intelligence -

Socio-cognitive Engineering and Business Intelligence, 2002, A.: Gadomski, BIAS Conf., Milano.


- "Business and competitive intelligence is the product of processed business information. Processed means that it has been analyzed and interpreted. Intelligence is anchored in past and present data to anticipate the future, in order to drive and guide decisions in organizations. The intelligence product relates to the whole informational environment of the organization: the evolution of markets, activities of the competition, pending arrival of new technology, new legislation, patent analysis, etc." []


- Business Intelligence With or Without the E; Dick Chase, Copyright . 2001 E-Solutions Integrator, Inc.




Recently (2006), in concordance with the second meaning of intelligence (Wikipedia) and the "marked rules" of the development,  the concept  Business Intelligence evolved to the denotation of an integrated information and data management employed in business activities


Google search examples:

"business intelligence"  - 95.800.000 docs (19 July 2006)

"business intelligence", " human intelligence" -  66.800 docs (19 July 2006)

"business intelligence", "mental capacity"   554  docs (19 July 2006)

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