3 Levels of
Knowledge technology is closely related to
From this perspective we may distinguish
basic categories of knowledge products:
1. Hardware/Software Applications:
- clients are end-users
- clients are
Mindware context: TOGA
Systemic Socio-cognitive Approach
tools and products of
scientific and engineering
products are encapsulated in the form of a goal-oriented
formal sistemic and computational standards then they are called mindware.
is to develop formal standards for the development, elaboration, dissemination
and publication of new scientific and technological ideas, methodologies,
methods and techniques.
Top-down mindware definition:
is the primary technology level, it satisfies the
First Engineering Paradigm
be a computational goal-oriented product.
WHAT IS SCIENCE?
develops and uses available means in order to explain phenomena and validate
hypothesis by experiments, modeling and theory building. Science
constructs and validates hypotheses. It only is limited by research
and administrative/ bureaucratic constrains.
WHAT IS ENGINEERING?
is a goal-oriented activity and relies on the planning and construction
of new systems/
using available technologies.These systems can be mental and physical.
Engineering activity is limited by user requirements and a sufficient
tends to minimalization of errors
under fixed funds constrains.
to minimalize costs
fixed errors constrains
are many others applications ot the term mindware on the
ORGANISMS ARE LIVING THINGS - THEY
POSSESS SELF-PRESERVATION INSTINCTS -
ATTEMPTS AT SUPRESSION CANNOT POSSIBLY
SUCCEED - THEY WILL PROTECT US AS WE
[Sol Mindware Project Coordinator @]
A metaphoric application of this term in the context of
intelligence studies, by David Perkins :
AND THE METACURRICULUM : DN Perkins:
A piece of mindware is anything a person can learn -- a strategy, an attitude,a
that extends the person's general powers to think critically and ..."
"Jonassen (1996) describes mindtools as computer applications "that require
students to think in meaningful ways in order to use the applications to
represent what they know (p. 3)." His mindtool metaphor is premised on
the idea that the use of the tool requires learners to organize and
represent their knowledge in a new way. "
is the strategies, attitudes, or habits that support intelligent behavior.
The mindware concept frames intelligence as reflective, and mutable. This
contrasts the more traditional view of intelligence as innate, or context
specific and the result of experience (Perkins, 1989, 1991, 1995). "
Mindware - An Introduction to the Philosophy of Cognitive Science
Andy Clark, Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive
Sciences, University of Sussex, England
Publication date: 8 February 2001
story is about the search for a cognitive scientific understanding of mind.
It is presented as a
journey from early work in Artificial Intelligence, through connectionist
(artificial neural network) counter-visions, and onto neuroscience, artificial
life, dynamics and robotics..."
and meta-knowledge " (2 docs, 18
is" (139 docs,
13 Feb. .2003)