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Global TOGA  Meta-Theory 
 "..It seems to be impossible to separate what exists from the 
    mechanism how we understand/perceive  this existence.

  -  It may to be done arbitrarily and only goal-oriented/directed/ 
                                                      [Adam M.Gadomski].



   " What is an elementary intelligent unit? 
     - It has to be a minimal axiomatic system which  exhibits
    all essential properties of intelligence. "
[Adam M.Gadomski]

before July 2008  .   HID: High-Intelligence & Decision Research  Group


     References to this e-paper:   Adam Maria Gadomski, Global TOGA   Meta-Theory.  The page since 1997, Last small updating  May. 2007, 2008

    TOGA (since 1989 -1993) is the global  systemic computational framework of a "theory for everything" (but not the

    "Theory of everything") from the viewpoint of an intelligent entity/agent. It includes axiomatic,  ontological and  methodological  


   TOGA is the goal-oriented knowledge ordering (conceptual modeling) tool for the  specification and  system/process   identification (s/i) of real-world complex problems. In such sense, it can be seen as an initial top/generic and axioms-based  meta-model, and  subsequently, the methodology of problem decomposition and specialization using available knowledge.

Top-down means: from a most general minimal information on a problem to its detailed specification/identification (s/i). Such approach enables a control/check of the completeness and congruence of s/i in  every problem specialization step . It requires an initial sufficient amount of information,  knowledge and preferences related  to the problem, their subsequent acquisition during the problem s/i, and the additional specialization patterns assembled in TOGA as Knowledge  Ontology Conceptualization System (KNOCS).  KNOCS  includes top: meta-modeling axioms, assumptions and model frames.

Object-based indicates a fundamental conceptualization platform of the meta-theory, called
the Theory of Abstract Objects (TAO). It is not object-oriented, it assumes that every problem can be represented using the frameworks of  world of abstract objects and these worlds universes The concept of abstract object is defined as everything what can be conceptualized as (<names>,<attributes list>, <values>)Attributes result from objects relations and the change concept, This assumption consists the primary axiom of the perception of the real world and is considered as the basis of the conscious reasoning of an intelligent entity/agent.

Goal-oriented; it is equivalent to goal-driven, goal-based, goal-directed, teleological and similar approaches, where the methods and methodology applied , in the real-time of the problem solving, confront the attributes of the pre-defined activity
/design goal with those which result from candidates on the problem sub-models.

The dominating top-goal is defined from the socio-cognitive perspective, and it is always the goal of the human or artificial problem solver, decision-maker or designer. The goal-oriented and top-down rules of s/i are included in the Methodological RUles System (MRUS) -  the third TOGA component.


Rigorous and integrated application of the above reasoning frameworks/patterns has enabled to specify the TOGA paradigms and axioms in the top-down, goal-oriented (goal-driven, goal-directed, ...)  and object-based manner.  

For identification and specification tasks, TOGA is the unified problem-solving/(conceptual modeling) tool of socio-cognitive engineering, it integrates  physics, engineering, systemics, cognitive and social  paradigms applied  to the ontology of abstract intelligent agents/systems, their  organizations, their environments and their interactions/interrelations.

 It consists of an initial integrated cognitive modeling framework based on the domain-independent integrated cognitive architecture which can be top-down specialized according to the MRUS rules.


  1)  For software engineers, TOGA  aims to provide the designer of complex engineering system, an intelligent-agent-based  

  conceptualization with a structured set of methods and rules to allow him to control top-down and goal-oriented conceptual modeling

  process/activity. It enables  to specify formally agent-based systems that can  be implemented within an   agent-based programming 

  platform. For such tasks,  TOGA  also provides a global identification and design methodological framework for human-computer

  intelligence-based systems. Its level of meta-formalization, top-down and goal-oriented requirements enable together to cope with a

  symbolic (not a sub-symbolic) design and to develop a general incremental intelligence ( an abstract or  synthetic  



  2)  For hard-sciences researchers, TOGA can provide a useful meta-conceptualization formal framework and "boundary conditions"

  for theories/models building and validation. It enables a meta-formal cognitive reflection on the performed research tasks/activities in 

  the context of integrated scientific paradigms .


  3) For soft-scientists and managers, TOGA can also be seen as one of possible visions/interpretations of  humans activity in the

  real  world, as well as a methodology (a mental schemata) for the reinforcement/improvement/enhanced of individual and
  organizational/group intelligence and their intelligence skill.

  Specific application domains of  TOGA are real-world/life cognitive decision-making problems related to the high-risk system  

  design and management, for example: human-computer systems design methodology, large scale emergency management,  

  organization's vulnerability, identification of human and abstract intelligent agent's  essential properties and  pathologies

  For example, different type of intelligences studied by several scientists (see Google search) can be seen in unique manner from the

  TOGA perspective as the relation between non-conscious and conscious IPK of intelligent agents (see on  this server).



  4) For coaching,  the TOGA application is focused on the meta-management  of individual  human problems in different contexts

  (life coaching, organizational coaching, ...) characterized by the necessity of the real-world high-risk decisions. Here, the

  TOGA expert may help to re-conceptualize the preferences  of a "client", to order his/her knowledge,  indicate valid information,

  and, finally,  may provide help for the revision of his/her desires, intentions  for the definition of new realistic goals and actions.

  The TOGA ontology and methodology enable to assess and put in evidence the influence of emotional components on the rational 

  reasoning of a "client".

  Unsolved problems are causes of stress and may lead to the serious human errors. Here, the essential coaching aspect is

  to indicate how clients may be self-conscious and may manage the management of their own problems.

  The reference to and use of the four TOGA Paradigms (see below) is critical in this type of meta-coach.


  Socio-cognitive Metaphysics : Remarks on the TOGA - Physics Relation (this paragraph added: 30 Sep.2008)


  From the top scientific paradigms based viewpoint, the TOGA meta-theory also is an approach  to the systemic socio-cognitive      

  metaphysics (for example, the mathematics used by physics is a metaphysics). It means, physics refers rigorously to the

  modeling/(logical interpretation) of all signals arrived by human senses.

  In the case of  the physics of emotions and reasoning, it is focused on the measurable properties of brains. In other words, it tends

  to answer how and which bio-physical processes lead to/cause complex observable  mental and, in consequence also human

  external, behaviors.

  From the TOGA perspective, the above approach to reasoning  and emotions is only one way to understand and modeling 

  intelligence and semi-intelligence. According to TOGA,  systemic socio-cognitive metaphysics is focused only on the observable 

  (also by introspection) functions of  the human brain - in the cognitive and social relations - it means, on a mind, independently on

  the nature of physical processes of their realizations.

  Shortly speaking we may arrive to two following conclusions:

  -  Physics tends to explain how is the observable universe (What "really" exists - With the "objective" scientific-technological point

     of view.

  -  Systemic socio-cognitive metaphysics tends to comprehend what is possible and may be useful (in a large general sense of

  this term) for an abstract intelligent agent/entity independently on its/his/her physical realization and external circumstances (How

 an intelligent agent can reasoning?  and Where are its limits - boundary conditions?).


 The both approaches tend to manage "ignorance" (lack of knowledge & information) but TOGA does it in the goal-oriented conscious

 intelligent agent based manner. 

 Anyway, they have to base on mathematical formalizations and are valid only if their models enable a computer simulation.


  Remarks on the TOGA Computational Philosophy

"phenomenology is a philosophical doctrine proposed by Edmund Husserl based on the study of human experience in which considerations of objective reality are not taken into account"

(Paideia : Philosophy/Phenomenology of Life Inspiring Education for Our Times (Analecta Husserliana)  ISBN:0792363191)


  From the top systemic metaphilosophical perspective, the TOGA computational philosophy is funded on the set of meta-

  assumptions/meta- axioms leading to the plausible motivations and choices of the TOGA axioms.  Using philosophical terminology,

  TOGA is holistic (top-down) and  teleological (goal-oriented).

  TOGA is goal-oriented, therefore  "objective reality are not taken into account" (Husserl).

  TOGA  is composed with three basic components:

  ontological, epistemological and axiological (including ethics ). Its main reference-point is a subjective perspective of an intelligent

  entity, i.e. it assumes that humans acts on the base of always limited available domain-knowledge, therefore every intelligent

  agent/entity has  his/her/its individual philosophy and it evolves according to their dynamics and different fusions into  intelligent


  The first TOGA  ontological axiom:

In every real-world problem exists the couple: 
an intelligent abstract entity and its environment.

  This entity is arbitrarily called "agent" or "intelligent agent".
  Therefore, TOGA  identifies every such couple as its own domain of interest, and it is identified/specified from the  perspective
  of this embedded abstract intelligent agent/entity.

  In the above sense, the problem of the existence of the"absolute" reality does not exist in TOGA. We should recall that it is goal-

  oriented, it means, it has  to be useful, not "true", and  goals are  the attributes of  only intelligent  being/entity/agent.

 The first TOGA  epistemological axiom:

Every  intelligent abstract entity , its environment and their interaction, are decomposable in parallel, top-down,  goal-oriented  and using an object-based conceptualization framework.


  The IPK (Information, Preferences, Knowledge) Paradigm,  from KNOCS,  is congruent and can be extended to the   

  fundamental philosophical triangle: 
                                        Ontology,  Ethics  and Epistemology,  where:

    Information  --> Ontology               (what exists in our domain of interest?)
    Preferences --> Ethics , Axiology   (which choice criteria we use?)
    Knowledge  --> Epistemology        (how we are able to act and reason?)

  After the "zoom" being done by  Artificial Intelligence, we argue that the concepts: ontology,  epistemology and ethics have to be
  redefined (goal-oriented) according to new needs of the  modern
systemic science and technology. In this sense  we are able 

  to  build a formal conceptualization bridge between TOGA and metaphilosophy.

In general, we may distinguish  two dominating approaches to  metaphilosophy, The first is based of the temptation of the application of the scientific paradigms for  new extrapolations of the recent scientific knowledge in order to cope with the basic philosophical and meta-philosophical questions - it is included in the perspective of the emergent systemics.
The second is based on
various syntheses of the current strictly philosophical knowledge and the historical philosophy culture, and  on their application to the interpretation of the new socio-technological reality

  TOGA is neither philosophy nor  metaphilosophy because, its subjective point of view does not need any axioms related to the

  absolute true and to the "real nature"  of the Universe.

  The science and every personal IPK are always open and limited systems. The personal IPK sets  evolve according to general

   utility criteria accepted arbitrarily by the individual preferences and meta-meta-..preferences of every intelligent entity.


  Simplifying, unique philosophical axiom relates to the TOGA readers, it is the assumption that they exist, are intelligent entities,

  have own preferences, are able to reason rationally and perceive structured information continuously.


 More information on the MKEM server pages:
  * Ontology & Knowledge: Meta-Ontological Relative Perspective:
  * Meta-ethics: Intelligent agents ethics and updating of ethics definition:
  * Meta-Knowledge Unified Framework:

 The  Problem of Complex Problems Decomposition: Four TOGA's Paradigms
  The  conceptual decomposition framework of a complex problem is necessary to its sufficient (goal-oriented) identification or  
  specification. According to the  TOGA strategy  (in MRUS),  it  is presented top-down in the context of complexity and meta-
  complexity [see:  the ppt file: , or  Adam Maria Gadomski Toward the Identification of the  
  Real-World Meta-Complexity ].
  This meta-framework is based on the formal definition of four ideal conceptualization paradigms/laws reciprocally interrelated:
                 1. IPK Universal  Reasoning Architecture Paradigm (URAP
                 2. Universal  Managerial Paradigm (UMP)
                 3. SPG  Universal Domain Paradigm (UDP)
                 4. WAG Universal Activity Paradigm (UAP) - It integrates URAP, UMP and UDP.
  Their applications are governed by MRUS (Methodological RUles System), It includes together four methodological meta-rules:
  subject-focused, top-down, goal-oriented, and cognitive-perspective .
Remark: The MRUS also  is driven by its own top-down rules, it means,  it can be extended, decomposed  and specialized according to the needs of a given problem.

  Synthetic Conclusions Related to Meta-knowledge of Humanity

  From the TOGA meta-theory perspective, we may assert:

  •    Physics is focused on the analysis and acquisition of information and knowledge from the humanity perspective.

  •    Philosophy defines, analyses and confronts human universal preferences and meta-preferences

  •    Religions provide axioms and meta-axioms for the development of universal preferences.

  Mathematics provides abstract reasoning tools for the all above.

  Selected not-ordered cognitive observations on an intelligence (not yet its definition):
  • The center/kernel of any human cognition is an abstract intelligence.
  • INTELLIGENCE is our fundamental and unique "tool" to comprehend and to understand the world.
  • INTELLIGENCE has to be a basic and necessary property of software systems to make them really efficient human tools in always more complex global world of information.
  • INTELLIGENCE is a capability to learn, to change its/his/her own preferences and to think about its/his/her own reasoning.
  • INTELLIGENCE is a capability to use its/his/her IPK for new/(not expected by the designer) problems.
  • Abstract INTELLIGENCE is its "essence" not dependent on technology and materials used for its realization, not dependent on  information, knowledge and preferences  available to a particular intelligent system.
  • INTELLIGENCE enables certain auto-consciousness.
  • Cognitive and not cognitive INTELLIGENCE (?)

 Basic References  to the TOGA Meta-theory

         Readings in TOGA - The archive of articles and presentations, 1986-2002  in updating.

F  The basic paper about TOGA and Abstract Intelligent Agent (pdf)  from the First  International AIA'93 
        Round-Table on  Abstract Intelligent Agent, 1993
F  TOGA Systemic Approach to the Global Specification  - EU EUREKA Sophocles Project Report, 2002

C  Intelligent Decision Support System: TOGA Cognitive Agent,  Transparent sheets, Rome,May 1999. 
C  Contesto TOGA per la Progettazione di un Agente Intelligente Astratto ed il suo Decision-Making
        Transparent sheets in Italian, Perugia, Feb.1999. 
C  Personoids ( abstract high-intelligent(ce) agents) definition; web pages since 1998.
C  Representation of a Domain-of-Activity: An approach to  Unified Engineering Ontology (since 1998)
C  Socio-cognitive engineering and the TOGA axioms'  system: Business Intelligence definition & 
       foundations.  Adam M.Gadomski,   Socio-Cognitive Engineering  Scenarios for the Reinforcement of  Global 
       Business  Intelligence:  TOGA Approach. in the Proceedings, and transparent sheets ( ppt.pdf
        presented during  the BIAS- FAST Conference, Milano 2002. 

C  See also my papers  list. They illustrate different applications and the specific properties of  TOGA. 


  Possible cooperation:  If you are interested in  the development of the socio-cognitive approach to intelligence-based systems using the TOGA framework    

   send your e-mail (adam<point>gadomski<at>casaccia<point>enea<point>it).


  See also

 F  High-intelligence and its socio-cognitive paradigm

  From the perspective of any concrete real-world complex problem, TOGA is a meta-theory,

    it is also self developing, i.e. it continuously growns  top-down according to the TOGA socio-cognitive paradigms (*).

  The TOGA Roadmap  (web-pages in preparation

1. TOGA Pragmatic and Computational Philosophy 
2. TOGA Meta-Epistemology: Constrains and Paradigms 
3. TOGA Meta-Ontology
     2.1 Epistemological tool: Abstract Objects Universe
     2.2 Real-world ontology:  (Intelligent Agent, Domain of Activity) couple
3. TOGA Meta-Methodology
4. TOGA Meta-Ethics
5. Theoretical Applications

     5.1 Systems identification

     5.2 Systems design

     5.3 Decision-making

     5.4 Humans modeling

6. Some Practical Applications

  Final Remarks Relate to other Research
    1. All above used concepts closely refer to the cognitive decision-making  of an intelligent entity (or have a sense
          only for abstract intelligent agents), on the other hand many strange definitions are diffused in serious publications,
            see for ex.:

          --  Long Term Technology Review. Research Councils UK (RCUK) Report 2000, Page 44:
            "This is best understood by imagining a chain linking data => information => knowledge.
    •  Data are the facts.
    • Information is the organisation of, associations between, and constraints upon data that allow it to be bused by a    user    or  a machine.

    • Knowledge is the interpretation of information and its use in a problem solving context. Knowledge can lead to new insights, which in turn",

        In the above context we suggest to see  the IPK definitions.

                - By the way, a "beautiful" shortest top definition/description of knowledge is in Wikipedia: "Knowledge is what is known.

                 ...there is no single definition of knowledge".

                   According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, in the common use: know (most general) - recognise, identify, be aware of;

                  know- how - faculty of knowing/knowledge;   knowledge/knowing - familiarity gained by experience , theoretical or

                  practical understanding.

           2. There are (see Web) few partially TOGA like theories in the subject matter literature, for ex.  SOAR , CYC
               (with "hand-coding" many millions of assertions), or  TROPOS  described in recent years, but only TOGA
                has a clear  meta-axioms/assumptions  layer (see: BIAS Conf or  the EUREKA Sophocles   Project  Report).

    3.  Numerous selected TOGA-like properties are disseminated  in the different later publications, but without its dominant

          and integrating meta-theoretical "skeleton" [see  for ex.

            -  "Computational Intelligence: A Logical Approach" , David Poole, Alan Mackworth, Randy Goebel,  Oxford University Press 1998,

            where, among other "borrowed"  from TOGA (known by authors) main ideas,, the model of   IPK (Information, Preferences,

            Knowledge)  is transformed by the  terminology change to: Observation, Goal/values and Knowledge  (see also:  Scientific Ethics).

            -  page: 57 in  Patrick van Bommel (editor).  Transformation of Knowledge, Information and Data: Theory and  

           Applications,  Information Science Publishing,  USA, 2005].


    4.  TOGA is the domain-independent reasoning instrument, therefore it can also be seen as a valid theory for the novel

         sistemic  business-oriented and safety-oriented perspective called "resilience engineering"


    5. TOGA provides a conceptualization tool  enabling  to confront, integrate and reconceptualize on the common

         platform different cognitive, socio-cognitive and interdisciplinary theories which  are based on the concepts

         with computational  definitions, therefore ( see: Meta-theory and meta-knowledge definitions:

         An Approach to Meta-Knowledge Unified Framework: a TOGA meta-theory perspective ).

      TOGA is validated by the confrontation with other experimentally validated theories.
      It may also serve as a theory building and theory validation tool.
  Some old & recent conclusions: human - computer comprehension and common languagesclik here (will be added).

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