The MKEM pages include Open Source Knowledge. Their application requires only the references according to the general rules of scientific ethics.
- It may to be done arbitrarily and only goal-oriented/directed/
" What is an elementary intelligent unit?
- It has to be a minimal axiomatic system which exhibits
all essential properties of intelligence. "
before July 2008 . HID: High-Intelligence & Decision Research Group
References to this e-paper: Adam Maria Gadomski, Global TOGA Meta-Theory. The page since 1997, Last small updating May. 2007, 2008 http://erg4146.casaccia.enea.it/wwwerg26701/Gad-toga.htm
1) For software engineers, TOGA aims to provide the designer of complex engineering system, an intelligent-agent-based
conceptualization with a structured set of methods and rules to allow him to control top-down and goal-oriented conceptual modeling
process/activity. It enables to specify formally agent-based systems that can be implemented within an agent-based programming
platform. For such tasks, TOGA also provides a global identification and design methodological framework for human-computer
intelligence-based systems. Its level of meta-formalization, top-down and goal-oriented requirements enable together to cope with a
2) For hard-sciences researchers, TOGA can provide a useful meta-conceptualization formal framework and "boundary conditions"
for theories/models building and validation. It enables a meta-formal cognitive reflection on the performed research tasks/activities in
the context of integrated scientific paradigms .
3) For soft-scientists and managers, TOGA can also be seen as one of possible visions/interpretations of humans activity in the
real world, as well as a methodology
(a mental schemata) for the reinforcement/improvement/enhanced
of individual and
Specific application domains of TOGA are real-world/life cognitive decision-making problems related to the high-risk system
design and management, for example: human-computer systems design methodology, large scale emergency management,
organization's vulnerability, identification of human and abstract intelligent agent's essential properties and pathologies.
For example, different type of intelligences studied by several scientists (see Google search) can be seen in unique manner from the
4) For coaching, the TOGA application is focused on the meta-management of individual human problems in different contexts
(life coaching, organizational coaching, ...) characterized by the necessity of the real-world high-risk decisions. Here, the
TOGA expert may help to re-conceptualize the preferences of a "client", to order his/her knowledge, indicate valid information,
and, finally, may provide help for the revision of his/her desires, intentions for the definition of new realistic goals and actions.
The TOGA ontology and methodology enable to assess and put in evidence the influence of emotional components on the rational
reasoning of a "client".
Unsolved problems are causes of stress and may lead to the serious human errors. Here, the essential coaching aspect is
to indicate how clients may be self-conscious and may manage the management of their own problems.
The reference to and use of
the four TOGA Paradigms (see below) is critical in this type of meta-coach.
Socio-cognitive Metaphysics : Remarks on the TOGA - Physics Relation (this paragraph added: 30 Sep.2008)
From the top scientific paradigms based viewpoint, the TOGA meta-theory also is an approach to the systemic socio-cognitive
metaphysics (for example, the mathematics used by physics is a metaphysics). It means, physics refers rigorously to the
modeling/(logical interpretation) of all signals arrived by human senses.
In the case of the physics of emotions and reasoning, it is focused on the measurable properties of brains. In other words, it tends
to answer how and which bio-physical processes lead to/cause complex observable mental and, in consequence also human
From the TOGA perspective, the above approach to reasoning and emotions is only one way to understand and modeling
intelligence and semi-intelligence. According to TOGA, systemic socio-cognitive metaphysics is focused only on the observable
(also by introspection) functions of the human brain - in the cognitive and social relations - it means, on a mind, independently on
the nature of physical processes of their realizations.
Shortly speaking we may arrive to two following conclusions:
- Physics tends to explain how is the observable universe (What "really" exists? - With the "objective" scientific-technological point
- Systemic socio-cognitive metaphysics tends to comprehend what is possible and may be useful (in a large general sense of
this term) for an abstract intelligent agent/entity independently on its/his/her physical realization and external circumstances (How
an intelligent agent can reasoning? and Where are its limits - boundary conditions?).
The both approaches tend to manage "ignorance" (lack of knowledge & information) but TOGA does it in the goal-oriented conscious
intelligent agent based manner.
Anyway, they have to base on mathematical formalizations and are valid only if their models enable a computer simulation.
Remarks on the TOGA Computational Philosophy
From the top systemic metaphilosophical perspective, the TOGA computational philosophy is funded on the set of meta-
assumptions/meta- axioms leading to the plausible motivations and choices of the TOGA axioms. Using philosophical terminology,
TOGA is holistic (top-down) and teleological (goal-oriented).
TOGA is goal-oriented, therefore "objective reality are not taken into account" (Husserl).
TOGA is composed with three basic components:
ontological, epistemological and axiological (including ethics ). Its main reference-point is a subjective perspective of an intelligent
entity, i.e. it assumes that humans acts on the base of always limited available domain-knowledge, therefore every intelligent
agent/entity has his/her/its individual philosophy and it evolves according to their dynamics and different fusions into intelligent
This entity is
or "intelligent agent".
In the above sense, the problem of the existence of the"absolute" reality does not exist in TOGA. We should recall that it is goal-
oriented, it means, it has to be useful, not "true", and goals are the attributes of only intelligent being/entity/agent.
TOGA epistemological axiom:
The IPK (Information, Preferences, Knowledge) Paradigm, from KNOCS, is congruent and can be extended to the
fundamental philosophical triangle:
After the "zoom" being done by
Artificial Intelligence, we
that the concepts: ontology, epistemology and ethics have to be
to build a formal conceptualization bridge between TOGA and metaphilosophy.
TOGA is neither philosophy nor metaphilosophy because, its subjective point of view does not need any axioms related to the
absolute true and to the "real nature" of the Universe.
The science and every personal IPK are always open and limited systems. The personal IPK sets evolve according to general
utility criteria accepted arbitrarily by the individual preferences and meta-meta-..preferences of every intelligent entity.
Simplifying, unique philosophical axiom relates to the TOGA readers, it is the assumption that they exist, are intelligent entities,
have own preferences, are able to reason rationally and perceive structured information continuously.
Synthetic Conclusions Related to Meta-knowledge of Humanity
From the TOGA meta-theory perspective, we may assert:
Mathematics provides abstract reasoning tools for the all above.
Selected not-ordered cognitive observations on an intelligence (not yet its definition):
basic paper about TOGA and Abstract Intelligent Agent (pdf)
from the First International AIA'93
Decision Support System: TOGA Cognitive Agent, Transparent
sheets, Rome,May 1999.
C See also my papers list. They illustrate different applications and the specific properties of TOGA.
send your e-mail (adam<point>gadomski<at>casaccia<point>enea<point>it).
Final Remarks Relate to other Research
only for abstract intelligent agents), on the other hand many strange definitions are diffused in serious publications,
see for ex.:
-- Long Term Technology Review. Research Councils UK (RCUK) Report 2000, Page 44:
"This is best understood by imagining a chain linking data => information => knowledge.
In the above context we suggest to see the IPK definitions.
- By the way, a "beautiful" shortest top definition/description of knowledge is in Wikipedia: "Knowledge is what is known.
...there is no single definition of knowledge".
According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, in the common use: know (most general) - recognise, identify, be aware of;
know- how - faculty of knowing/knowledge; knowledge/knowing - familiarity gained by experience , theoretical or
3. Numerous selected TOGA-like properties are disseminated in the different later publications, but without its dominant
and integrating meta-theoretical "skeleton" [see for ex.
- page: 57 in Patrick van Bommel (editor). Transformation of Knowledge, Information and Data: Theory and
Applications, Information Science Publishing, USA, 2005].
4. TOGA is the domain-independent reasoning instrument, therefore it can also be seen as a valid theory for the novel
sistemic business-oriented and safety-oriented perspective called "resilience engineering"
5. TOGA provides a conceptualization tool enabling to confront, integrate and reconceptualize on the common
platform different cognitive, socio-cognitive and interdisciplinary theories which are based on the concepts
with computational definitions, therefore ( see: Meta-theory and meta-knowledge definitions:
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