Since 23 Aug.1998, last change Sept..2000
Some Citations of Adam M. Gadomski's Web-Pages on the Internet

From "The Future of Intelligent Internet Agents in European Financial Reporting"  full article
A. Baldwin, University of Alabama
S. L. M. Williams, Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Forcoming 1999
Multi-layer perspective. Gadomski (1998) provide a somewhat differing perspective of an intelligent agent, with a more detailed description of the relevant components required in its design. They applied a three-layer vertical scale to describe how an intelligent agent should be formed.
The first layer, communication, described the method of interaction between the various actors (that is the user, agent and other agents) within the system. This layer was divided into three zones;
(1) perceptors;
(2) effectors; and
(3) messages.
The second layer describes the region within which the intelligent agent operates and processes that it conducts. Again this layer is subdivided, though this time into four relevant features.
The first, defined as the association stratum, describes the ability of the agent to reason and make deductions. The association stratum is closely linked to the comprehension center that describes the basic model-knowledge structure of the agent. Gadomski (1998) describes the preference centre as the point at which the specific goals of the agent are established.
Finally, the knowledge centre, also considered the operational site, provides the specific decisional and action basis for the agent where intervention and respective actions are undertaken.
The final, and perhaps the most important layer that defines an intelligent agent, is the meta-reasoning kernel. This layer is the location that contains the nerve centre of the agent where its relevant strategies and operating parameters are defined.
Gadomski (1998) consider this to be the point at which human characteristics, necessary for an intelligent agent to exist, is developed and incorporated. Without this layer it, according to Gadomski and Zytkow (1994), would not enable the agent to be defined as intelligent.
In principal, Gadomski (1998), attempting to more closely and technically define intelligent agents and the attributes they need to possess.
From: Application of intelligent agents in emerging economies: The case of the ASEAN.
Proceedings of the 34th CIERA International Accounting Conference, April 1999,
Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A. (Baldwin, A. and S. L. M. Williams), 1999.
Gadomski (1998) provide a somewhat differing perspective of an intelligent agent, suggesting a more detailed description of the relevant components required in its design. Their model comprised a three-layer vertical scale with relevant subcomponents at each layer. Gadomski 's (1998) model is shown in Figure 3. {Insert Figure 3. About Here}
The most important layer of Gadomski's (1998) model is that defined as the meta-reasoning kernel. At this layer, software must possess the required characteristics to be defined as intelligent.
The meta-reasoning kernal contains the nerve centre of the agent where its relevant strategies and operating parameters are defined (Gadomski, 1994).
Gadomski (1998) consider this to be the point at which human characteristics, necessary for an intelligent agent to exist, are developed and incorporated. Without this layer, the agent, according to Gadomski and Zytkow (1994), cannot be defined as intelligent.
The literature has provided a number of definitions of an intelligent agent. Furthermore, there appears a deal of variation amongst researchers concerning the properties of an intelligent agent. It is beyond the scope of this paper to resolve these differences. Nonetheless, for the purposes of this paper, the following definition is provided:
An intelligent agent is a system situated within and also acts as part of its environment, sensing the interactions of that environment and acting over time, such that it has the capacity to alter and evaluate its preferences and knowledge, learning to adapt if the initial goals are not achieved, so as to effect what it seeks in the future.
The definition provided for this paper is considered to provide relevant breadth is capturing the essential essences of an intelligent agent. An essential point of this definition is that it clearly distinguishes intelligent agents from software agents (programs).
As argued by Gadomski (1998), software agents are "functional software that is able to execute some predefined class of external tasks and has an autonomy during these tasks realization. They react on predefined states of its environment according to acquired information, its own built-in preferences and knowledge".
Intelligent agents are considered to go a step beyond software agents, introducing a number of unique characteristics such as the ability to interact socially.

From: BotSpot Categories Knowledge Bots
The scope of MINDS (Multi-purpose Intelligent Networked Decision Support) project is to contribute to the development of a multi-purpose active Decision-Support System (DSS) with modifiable knowledge and learning capability for various profiles of end-users. The transition from passive decision support systems (DSS) to active ones is based here on the proposal of the development of new intelligent agent ( personoids ) software technology and adequate associated prototypes providing the basis for tackling a wide range of decisional human activities.

From: BotSpot Articles and Papers
Abstract Intelligent Agents: Paradigms, Foundations and Conceptualization Problems

Abstract Intelligent Agents: Paradigms, Foundations and Conceptualization Problems  by  Adam M. Gadomski and Jan M. Zytkow reviews  abstract intelligent agents (AIA) - a hypothetical  model that captures the essence of all systems  which we accept as "intelligent"  in the common sense. They review different perspectives on  agents discussed at the Round-Table in Rome, including the difference between agents and physical agents, agent behavior, observation and  action capacities, communication with other  agents, architecture and reasoning.
Paradigms of Personoids

Paradigms of Personoids a white paper by Adam Maria Gadomski discusses that personoid does not need a human-like physical body it is rather an abstraction of some functions of the human mind which can be considered as a asic entity for any, always goal-oriented intelligent system. The personoid shell is a carrier of "reasoning" frames.
U.S.A.: Global Emergency Management Information Network Initiative (GEMINI)
Theme Area Project Descriptions: Distributed Intrusion Detection System (DIDS)

Related Material May Be Found:
American Red Cross WEB page
ENEA Italian National Research Agency (
FEMA (U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency)General Information
FEMA Disaster Facts
FEMA "Preparing for a Disaster"
LifeLink "Planning Guidelines"
LifeLink "Related Internet Sites"
Managerial Intelligent Node for Decisional Emergency Support
NOAA, National Weather Service, Hydrologic Info. Center
Third Wave Safe (Earthquake / Seismic Sea Waves)
U.S. State Emergency/Disaster Management Offices
States Inventory Project
References in Not Self-subscribed Subject Lists and Personal Bookmarks
Intelligent Agents Repository
Aglets Information (IBM Aglets Workbench)
Comercial Software Agents Overview (Open Sesame, Inc.)
Introduction to Agents (UMBC Agent Web)

Agents and Intelligence (A.M. Gadomski)
FIPA's Agent Definition
Introduction to Agent Concepts
Is It An Agent or Just A Program? (S. Franklin and A. Graesser)
Software Agents, what are they ? (Mark C.)
What Are Agents? (Kinetoscope, Inc.)
What is an agent? (Hebrew University)
What intelligent agent (, Inc.)
What's an Agent? (L. Foner)
Some Starting On-Line Readings
Quantico AgentBase - Articles (List at Kenetoscope, Inc.)
Agent-Based Engineering, The Web, and Intelligence (C.J. Petrie)
Agents that Reduce Work and Information Overload (P. Maes)
Agents to Roam the Internet (SunWorld - October 1996)
Agents: Not just for Bond anymore (JavaWorld - April 1997)
Ethical Web Agents (D. Eichmann)
Intelligent Software (P. Maes)
KQML - A Language and Protocol for Knowledge and Information Exchange
On Cooperation in MAS (Doran, Franklin, Jennings, and Norman)
Mobile Agents: White Paper at General Magic
Pattie Maes on Software Agents: Humanizing the Global Computer
Sistemas Multiagentes (C. Lemaitre, in Spanish)
Talk to My Agent: Software Agents in Virtual Reality (J. Horberg)
The Architecture of Aglets (JavaWorld - April 1997)
The Nature of Intelligent Decision Support Systems (A.M. Gadomski)
The Secret Agent Man Articles at BotSpot, Inc.
Under the Hood: Solve your real-world problems with aglets (JavaWorld - May
Workshop Proceedings
Abstract Intelligent Agent, 2 (AIA'94)
Tim Finin
Klaus Fischer
Adam M. Gadomski
Michael Georgeff
Agent Collaboration Language (ACL) Project
KSE - Knowledge Sharing Effort at UMBC Agent Web
KSE Public Library at Stanford University
Open Knowledge Base Connectivity
IPK: Information, Preferences, Knowledge


Information Technologies : Agent Technologies
People Working on Agents
Patrick Studdard
It includes Patrick's MS thesis ``Representing Human Emotions in Intelligent Agents.''.
Adam Maria Gadomski
Philippe Morignot
Dr. Kerstin Dautenhahn

Intelligent agents (repository) Sponsored by DG XIII E-1
IST Programme

Defining software agents
     Agents are software artifacts that act on behalf of users. It is believed that they will be a major  factor in overcoming information overload in the future by carrying out tasks in cyberspace on  behalf of users. One of the best articles defining agents and offering a taxonomy is "Is is an  Agent or just a Program?" by Atan Franklin and Art Graesser.

Agent resources
          A number of papers discussing the principles behind developing intelligent agents and  their application including papers entitled: "The concepts of agent and intelligent agent" and "Abstract intelligent agents", which discusses the use of hypothetical models for  defining intelligence in agents.
          Artificial Intelligence Resources


Scheduling with Agents
     1.What is "Network Agent"?
       You may get the answer from the following pages:

             1.Stan Franklin and Art Graesser, "Is it an Agent or Just a Program,"
             2."Agents and Intelligence,"
             3."CATS: Collaborative Agent Technology System,"
             4."Intelligent Software Agents Explained,"
             5."Internet Softbot,"
REASONING ABOUT ACTIONS: Some Research Groups, Individual Researchers and an Emailing List
This version: 22nd March 1999
List of Individual Researchers
G (back to index)
Alfredo Gabaldon, (email:, University of Texas at El Paso, U.S.A.
Antony Galton, (email:, (papers), Department of Computer Science, University of
Exeter, U.K.
Adam Maria Gadomski, (email:, (papers), Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Italy

The World of Function: Functional Diagnosis
Innes Fergusen
Adam Gadomski
Jane Malin

CS 590 Directed Research, R.Wagner,
Computer Science Department of the University of Southern California
Reading List
12.K. Sycara, D. Zeng, "Coordination of Multiple Intelligent Software Agents,
     " International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems, Volume 5, numbers 2 and 3, 1996.
13.TBD, "Agents and Intelligence,"
14.TBD, "CATS: Collaborative Agent Technology System,"

MONET is a European Network of Exelence in ModelBased Systems and Qualitative Physics, for  Industrialists,Academics and Researchers with a common long-term technological development  objective in  Model Based Systems & Qualitative Reasoning (MBS & QR). The Network is co-ordinated from the Centre for Intelligent Systems within the Department of Computer Science, University of  Wales, Aberystwyth, UK.

QPhysics Mailing List
A I A  9 4,     The Second International Round-Table on

Bookmarks for Chad Huneycutt
Agents and Intelligence
Adam Maria Gadomsky</A>
The OpenGL Graphics System: A Specification (Version 1.1)
GLUT API, version 3
Cray on Research
Welcome to Virtual Personalities, Inc
Evaluation of Intelligent Systems
ANSI Ad Hoc Group on Ontology Standards
Adam Maria Gadomski : home-pages
Potluck Recipies
Bookmarks for Stein Inge Morisbak
    Kristen Krogh
    Curriculum Vitae
    Christen Krogh: Homepage
    Christen Krogh
    With a licence to KILL -9
    Marcin Konopka
    Adam Maria Gadomski
    Aaron Sloman
    Bruce Krulwich

Bookmarks for Paul Scerri:
   Ed Durfee's Homepage
   Adam Maria Gadomski
   Norbert Glaser

Khoroshevsky's Links
Communities in MAS Domain. Agent Society AgentLink:
A Network of Excellence for Agent-Based Computing FIPA Association. Conferences, Workshops, etc....
       Introduction to Agents (UMBC Agent Web)
         Agents and Intelligence (A.M. Gadomski)
          FIPA's Agent Definition
          Is It An Agent or Just A Program? (S. Franklin and A. Graesser)
          Software Agents, what are they ? (Mark C.)
          What Are Agents? (Kinetoscope, Inc.)
          What is an agent? (Hebrew University)
          What intelligent agent (, Inc.)
          What's an Agent? (L. Foner)


Information Technologies : Agent Technologies

Forum & mailing lists
      The Software Agents Mailing List  is devoted to the issues of software agents, 
     personal digital assistants, software robots, knowbots, intelligent interface 
     the mailing list of the European Network for Intelligent Information Interfaces. 
     Abstract Intelligent Agents E-mail group
     Abstract Intelligent Agents is a newsgroup focused on the modeling problems
     of abstract intelligent agents, i.e. independent from their physical
     and software realizations. 
    the Mobility Mailing List 
     The Mobility Mailing list has been set up to discuss all things pertaining to 
     mobile code, objects, agents and the like. 
     --- miscellaneous 
     Agents discussion forum

   Lenker’s Repository
   Relevante aktiviteter
 Marcin Konopka
 Adam Maria Gadomski
 Aaron Sloman
Bruce Krulwich Bruce Krulwich's ideas page.
 Patti Maes MIT
...               .
Alison Cawsey , Department of Computing and Electrical Engineering, Heriot Watt University
Links of James Cremer (University of Iowa) :

Technical Links of Andrew Do-Sung Jun.
Software Agents

     Layered Learning in Multi-Agent Systems (thesis):
     Seminars & Courses:,,,,,,
     Some publications(Mike Wooldridge):; A Roadmap of Agent Research and Development:
     Agent Teaching Database:
     Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation:
     Security in Mobile Agent Systems:
     Distributed Objects & Components: Mobile Agents:
     Characters, improvisation, and ...:
     A. M. Gadomski. Agents and Intelligent Agents:
     A. M. Gadomski. Personoids Paradigms:
     A. M. Gadomski. IPK: Information, Preferences, Knowledge Architecture:
     Agent-Based Engineering, the Web, and Intelligence:
     A Multiple Ant Colony System for Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows:
     The multi-agent framework "Bee-gent":
     Agent-based ...:
     Agent-Based Project Management:
     Intelligent Business System (BT):
     Bond Group:
     The Agent-based Systems Group:
     Intelligent Software Agents:
     Autonomous learning of sequential tasks:
     Multiple Automata for Complex Task Achievment:
     The JavaMail API:,
     UNIX email clients:,
. . .

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