The Second International Round Table on Abstract Intelligent Agent: Situation Assessment (AIA94) has been organized by the Italian Agency for New technology, Energy and the Environment (ENEA) in collaboration with the Polish Academy of Science, Systems Research Institute (SRI PAN) and co-sponsored by the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence (AI*IA).

Chairman: Adam M. Gadomski, ENEA (Italy)

Co-chairmenGeorge Rzewski, Open University (UK), Andrzej Straszak, SRI PAN (Poland), Jan M. Zytkow, Wichita State University (USA)

Scientific Committee

Chair: A.M. Gadomski, ENEA, CRE Casaccia , Italy

Co-Chair: J.M. Zytkow, Wichita State Univ., USA

J. Attardi, Univ.of Pisa/ICSI Berkeley, Italy/USA

Y. Demazeau, LIFIA/CNRS, France

J.A. Feldman, ICSI Berkeley , USA

M. Gadomska, Independent Consultant, Italy

F. Giunchiglia , IRST-Trento, Italy

H.J. Van den Herik, Univ. of Limburg, Netherlands

H. Hong, Habrin Ins.of Tech., P.R.China

N.K. Kasabow, Univ. of Otago, New Zealand

G. Kersten, Carleton Univ. , Canada

J. Komorowski , Univ. of Trondheim , Norway

M.Y. Kiang , Arizona St.Univ. , USA

R. Michalski , George Mason Univ., USA

V. Nanni, ENEA, CRE Casaccia, Italy

D. Nardi , Univ.Sapienza Roma, Italy

M. Olivetti-Belardinelli, Univ.Sapienza Roma, Italy

C. Peyralbe, Cap Gemini Innovation, France

M.M. Richter ,Univ. of Kaiserslautern, Germany

P.S. Rosenbloom, Univ. of Southern California. USA

G. Rzevski, Open Univ. , UK

W-M. Shen , MCC-Texas , USA

R. Soto, Monterrey Tech. AI Center, Mexico

A. Straszak , IBS, Pol.Academy of Sciences, Poland

L. Stringa, IRST-Trento, Italy

W. Van De Velde , Vrije Brussel Univ. , Belgium

G. Zlotkin, MIT, USA


 C. Balducelli (Chair), M.L. Borrello, F. Fontana, C. Manna, F.R. Picchia, G. Vicoli


 The AIA Round-Table is a periodical forum of researchers and practitioners from different fields to confront recent results and opinions on formal integrated construction of domain and carrier independent intelligent systems (abstract intelligent agents). An abstract intelligent agent is a model of intelligent systems which is independent of their possible physical realizations, i.e. it represents only these properties which we are disposed to recognize or accept as necessary for intelligent systems. In the near future an abstract intelligent agent will be the basic conceptual element of different knowledge-based software systems and an important reference framework for identification of intelligent behavior of real-world (natural) systems.

The goal of the AIA round-table can be viewed from two different perspectives.

In the engineering perspective, the idea of AIA leads to the model based design of reasoning modules for highly autonomous robots or other KB knowledge systems, such as intelligent plant operator support systems, intelligent management decision support, intelligent CIM/CASE conceptual design support, intelligent tutoring systems, intelligent groupware/cooperation/ coordination software tools. All these systems in autonomous way support humans in specification and solving of complex, incomplete and ill-defined problems referred to the real world. A model of AIA can be a key theoretical base for the performance of such tasks.

In the socio-cognitive perspective AIA can be considered as an abstract conceptual frame for modeling the behavior of living organisms recognized arbitrarily as intelligent. It can provide the conceptual and terminological "bridge" between natural (evolution) and artificial (designed) systems, for their simulations as well as for teaching, diagnosis and treatment. These applications should be interesting for psychology, sociology, organization research and economy. We can remark that the human AIA developer can be viewed as a specific physical realization of an AIA.

Contrary to physical systems which behave according to physical laws and externally observed initial states, the behavior of an intelligent agent also depends on its unobserved and variable "mental" states represented by such abstracts concepts as information, goal, preference, knowledge. According to the AIA93 conclusions, they form a conceptual web which can be interpreted as the architecture of an abstract intelligent agent.

The goal-oriented intelligent reasoning includes many activities and functions such as conceptualization, recognition, decision making, learning, discovery, situation assessment and planing. These activities applied recursively and repeatedly are necessary generic elements of AIA behavior.

The specific subject of the AIA94 meeting has been situation assessment viewed as one of the fundamental mental functions of intelligent systems interacting with their environment. AIA views every situation in the context of its goal-oriented activity. Situation assessment is a repetitive and recursive phase of AIA reasoning, it produces initial data for the planing phase and may also be viewed as a problem specification preceding problem solving.

The Round-Table is open to all new ideas and new points of view related to the concept AIA.

International periodical AIA Round-Table wishes to offer an intellectual challenge for practitioners and researchers. especially who acquired their experience working across disciplinary boundaries.

The topics of the meeting regarded:

- a situation assessment (S-A) on different abstraction levels, domain independent, and applied

indifferent domains of intelligent agent activities,

- S-A in the contexts of the agent's possibilities, preferences, motivations, emotions and goals.

- general problems of AIA construction,

- S-A in learning, discovery, autonomous robot task execution,

- S-A in multi-agent worlds; organization management, cooperation, negotiation, tutoring,

- S-A in plant supervision and control, in emergency management,

 The Debate Sessions also concerned more general topics, such as: paradigms, methodologies and methods for AIA conceptualization and analysis, terminology, hierarchy and recursive nature of AIA "mental" functions, as well as AIA visions of physical and social environments.

                                                                                                                                             (-) AIA94 Chairman

 CONTENTS (selected from 30 papers presented)

 General Perspectives

 A.M. Gadomski and J.M. Zytkow , Abstract Intelligent Agents: Paradigms, Foundations and Conceptualisation Problems

 L. Stringa, At the Heart of Intelligence: Memory versus Computation

Abstract reasoning

 R.L. Frost, W. C. Stirling , A Formal Decision Theory for Autonomous Agents

 R. Sebastiani, A. Villafiorita, F. Giunchiglia, Proving Theorems by Using Abstraction Interactively

 J.M. Zytkow, Searching for the Unknown: Machine Discoverer Assesses Its State of Knowledge

Intelligent Agent in the Multi-Agent Perspective

 G. E. Kersten and S. Szpakowicz, A Formal Account of Sequential Decision-Making in a Co-operative Setting

 A. Cesta and M. Micelli, Situation Assessment in Help-Seeking: Interaction Strategies in Multi-Agent Domains

 F. Abbruzzese , Modelling Situation Assessment as Self-Organisation of Micro-Frames Stimulated by the Environment

 F. Seredynski , Migrating Societies

Intelligent Agent in the Cognitive Perspective

E. Pessa, M. P. Penna, Structural Properties of Learning

P.L. Marconi , Hybrid Pluri-Individual Organisms and Knowledge Clouds: A Hypothesis for an Evolutional Theory of the Mind

Situation-Assessment Function

 M.J. Patel, Situation Assessment and Adaptive Learning - Theoretical and Experimental Issues

 E. Sala, Possible Applications of Intelligent Agent Based Systems in Space Domain

 F. Fontana, Preliminary Study of Autonomous Situation Assessment in Data Management Systems

 C. Balducelli, Situation Assessment in Emergency Scenarios

 G. Gerlinger, R. Pennings, B. Maigné, FORMENTOR- Situation Assessment in the Supervision of Complex  Hazardous Processes

 J. Malec, Situation Assessment in Traffic Scenarios